In 1899 William McNaught identified three mental faculties that all methods of teaching listening assumed children to possess.
- the observation of what is heard at any given moment
- the recollection of what has previously been heard
- the comparison of what we hear now with what we have recently heard 
We would perhaps want to add
- the prediction of what is to come
McNaught was writing about the teaching of listening and the methods by which children are taught to listen. 
Might it be a good thing to teach children that they possess the potential to
- observe what is heard at any given moment
- recollect what has previously been heard
- compare what they hear now with what has recently been heard
- predict what is to come? 
This would require some deliberate teaching about how to think in sound.
Powerful knowledge and valuable know how for those acquiring it, an example of meta-cognition. 
Pupils would of course learn to do this anyway in their own time and without being taught.
Deliberate teaching implies formal learning with the intention of empowering the pupil and overcoming the unpredictability of ‘own time’ learning.
McNaught’s bigger picture was the teaching of sight-singing.
If you can sight-sing you really can claim to be able to read music.
I have often wondered what is meant when we talk about reading music. What is actually meant? Clearly it is more than cracking a code-decoding symbols.
Sadly, there is no shortage of poorly conceived approaches used to teach children to read music in 2020, and perhaps rather more than there were in 1899.
McNaught was getting close.
 McNaught, W. G. (1899-2000) ‘The Psychology of Sight-Singing’, Proceedings of the Musical Association 26, 33-35 cited in G. Cox (1993) A History of Music Education in England 1872-1928, Scolar Press: Aldershot.
 This was before the gramophone and the music appreciation movement. The idea of listening was embedded in the act of making music – singing and playing.
 In Lucy Green’s theory of musical meaning ‘inherent’ musical meaning works in the same way. For a thorough discussion of the significance of inherent meaning see Green, L. (2005) Meaning, autonomy and authenticity in the music classroom, (pp. 3-19) Professorial Lecture. Institute of Education: London.
 Furthermore, this might lead to think of listening as being a foundational element of a curriculum rather than a part of the listening, composing, performing trinity.Advertisements
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